The state of the field review of the research literature on assessment and learning covers major developments internationally this century. The intersection between assessment and learning is of utmost importance for the promotion or hindrance of quality in education. This topic is important around the world, but Norwegians have specifically been calling for more work in this area so that questions can be answered about how much children are learning in schools. As in other countries, there has been concern that there is a lack of an assessment culture. For a long time, grading children's schoolwork was seen as detrimental to their learning, motivation and feelings about themselves. Cultural and historical reasons for this differ in each setting, but in Norway this is related to societal values of equity, inclusion and democracy, which were antithetical to national testing. In this environment, the introduction of international tests provided hitherto unavailable sources of data. Our cross-cutting theme in this review relates to how valuable learning is shaped and defined by assessment theory and practice. How societies, including Norwegian society, will be influenced by the uptake of particular approaches to defining learning through assessment technologies* is an important issue. Assessment is not a neutral activity and through this review we seek to depict how the literature has explored the relationships between assessment and learning.
* Such as classroom assessment practices or large-scale testing based upon psychometrics.