The conditions of displacement consist of a multitude of transformations that have a negative effect for a number of people affected while simultaneously generate an economy of survival and productivity for others. Understanding this requires a broad inte llectual reflection on how the dynamics and patterns of inclusion and exclusion emerges, how the displaced population define their own livelihood strategies in the new environment and what effect this has for the formal and the informal labour market that exists in local host communities. This research proposal seeks to contribute to the state of the art of displacement and refugee studies through a series of case-studies by critically and empirically examining the conditions of displacement in Northern U ganda (Acholiland), Southwestern Uganda (Nakivale), Eastern DRC (Lubero, North Kivu), Liberia (Grand Gedeh) and Zimbabwe (Bulawayo).The following main research questions will be cross cutting issues addressed by the five case studies:-What determines t he extent of participation of displaced people in the social and economic spheres of the host communities?-Who are the "losers" and "winners" among the displaced people as well as the host communities in terms of assets and expenditures?-What type of coping mechanisms and livelihood strategies are adopted by displaced populations and to what extent does this influence the host communities?-To what extent has humanitarian assistance provided to the displaced population brought changes in existing lab or and commodities markets in the host communities? A mixed-methods approach is proposed with both qualitative and quantitative data collection where, the qualitative methods informs and supports the quantitative and econometric analysis. Drawing from a comparative analysis of the proposed case studies, the project aims to provide policy recommendations on how to promote humanitarian policy with a clear focus on lessons for future humanitarian assistance.