The topic for this project is conditions for successful implementation of three international agreements relevant to the sustainable management of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture (PGRFA): the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) with the Nagoya Protocol on Access and Benefit Sharing (NP), the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (ITPGRFA). The project focuses on access and benefi t sharing (ABS) under these treaties, as this is important for their prospects of implementation and thus for the management of PGRFA, which in turn is a central factor for the adaptation of food production to climate change. The relationship between the three conventions has the potential for synergies as well as turf struggles. Their normative directions are largely compatible but may in some contexts be conflicting, as they do involve a large number of institutions that face the challenge of effective coordination. The interplay between these agreements and the Agreement on Trade Related aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPs) of the World Trade Organization (WTO) is particularly challenging as countries must balance demands for protection of I ntellectual Property Rights with access and benefit sharing and Farmers' Rights. Our case countries are India, as developing country and an emerging economy and Nepal, as a least developed country. Both exceptionally rich in plant biodiversity, they have been active in the international negotiations, and we have good working relationships with researchers in both countries. We will analyse the implementation of the international treaties in terms of ABS in India and Nepal at the national as well as local levels. Further, we will identify the prospects for further implementation in light of the broader context of international regimes and discuss the extent to which these findings have relevance for other countries.