Brazil is fast becoming the world's leading exporter of agricultural produce - including of biofuels. The extent to which the country's almost five million agricultural wageworkers may 'claim a fair share' of the wealth thus accumulated depends on the rea lisation of their freedom of association and collective bargaining rights. Yet, there is a dearth of research on farm workers' ability to pursue collective interests through trade unions. Brazil's corporatist labour relations system bears adversely on f arm workers' trade union rights. Freedom of association is severely compromised by the non-recognition of workplace unions and the system of statutory monopoly unions. In agriculture, wageworkers and smallholders - whose interests often compete or even co nflict (many smallholders are employers) - are forced into organisational cohabitation in shared monopoly unions. Furthermore, unions are based on presumed rather than genuine representation; the system therefore fails to induce the participation and cohe sion which unions need so as to bargain credibly with employers. However, recent reform efforts have set in motion some discrete change processes. The project shall explore whether global decent work efforts - ILO's supervisory and promotional activities; and corporate social responsibility initiatives related to bioethanol - affect these processes in ways which are advantageous to Brazilian farm workers, or otherwise offset the biases of the system. The applicant is well-versed with the governance and traction of core labour standards, and has substantial research experience from Brazil. The project will benefit from support of Instituto Sociedade, Populacão e Natureza (Brasilia) and Instituto de Estudos Brasileiros (USP). The project is very relevan t to Norwegian policy makers whose commitments to multilateralism, core labour standards and marginalised groups are pronounced; to prospective biofuels importers; and to actors engaged in CSR.