Indigenous territories currently account for 54% of all reserves by acreage across all nine Amazonian countries, and overall cover approximately 50% of the forrest area of the Colombian Amazon. Amazonian indigenous reserves therefore play a key role prote cting and preserving tropical forest biodiversity against logging, agricultural conversion, wildfires and resource exploitation. However, harvest systems through hunting, collection of other non-timber forest products, and fishing are legally permitted wi thout a rational set of guidelines or a management plan. Hence, harvest-sensitive species have been driven to local extinction or decline in several indigenous and other multiple-use, sustainable development reserves. The key question, therefore, is wheth er a spatially structured harvesting system can be made politically and culturally viable over the long term. This project aims to develop a spatially-structured sustainable co-management protocol to inform the use of game vertebrates on-timber forest resources. The project will be conducted at two contiguous indigenous reserves; the Deni Indian Reserve and and Kanamari Indian Reserve. These are two of the most remote indigenous reserves in the Brazilian Amazon, and rely heavily on gam e vertebrates and other extractive activities targeting forest resources. This project will thus establish the foundation upon which we can build sustained conservation efforts by identifying the biological prerequisites for conservation planning and desi gning culturally effective and ethical management responses. In particular, the project will shed much needed light on crucial reserve design issues related to the internal zoning of large multiple-use reserves (>100,000 ha), including the proportion of a reserve that should be protected from harvesting activities, and the size, lifespan, spatial configuration, and habitat productivity of no-take areas.