This is a recently initied cluster-randomized trial in Haryana, North India. Eighteen geographical areas served by Primary Health Centres (PHCs) (average population 30,000) were randomized to intervention or comparison areas. The IMNCI intervention includ es three main components:a) improvements in the case management skills of health staffb) improvements in the overall health system to support its performance, and c) improvements in family and community health care practices; concretely: -prevention a nd management of hypothermia -early initiation of breastfeeding and exclusive breastfeeding -community-based care of low birth weight infants -improved care-seeking for neonatal infectionsThe primary outcome measure is neonatal mortality. The study wi ll also collect information on cause-specific neonatal mortality, ascertained using a standardized previously validated verbal autopsy instrument administered by trained, skilled health workers. All the other outcomes (including Infant mortality; Initiati on of breastfeeding within 1 hour of birth; Exclusive breastfeeding at 4 weeks of age; Proportion of neonates identified to be sick by caregivers who sought care) are secondary outcomes. The effectiveness of this comprehensive intervention will be measu red by comparing the primary and secondary outcome measures in the intervention and comparison clusters, controlling for any baseline differences such as the predefined outcomes and/or socioeconomic status and demography.The project will serve as a guid e to the Government of India of how to best implement the IMNCI strategy and measure its impact. It may also yield information critical to the implementation of the National (Indian) Rural Health Mission (NRHM) and to Norway's participation (NIPI) in RHM and to other large national and global programs aimed at enhancing child survival (http://tinyurl.com/37lzb9). See "Project publication plan" for further details on this aspect.