In a world in which there is an increasing need for re/settle people torn apart by conflict, it is critical to create the basis for durable development, by providing a sustainable physical settlements and a socially and economically viable community. The challenges involved with this situation have become a critical component of development in many regions of the world e.g. the Balkans, and Africa.Thus this project sets out;:1) to examine the meanings and forms that property takes and to explore their i mplications for and impacts on the development and making of settlements particularly in situations of conflict and post-conflict; 2)from lessons learned to assist international donors; especially Norway given its deep commitment to development aid, to re duce the economic, social and cultural vulnerabilities that threaten the process of rebuilding and in turn development; 3) to provide important insights in helping to resolve both academic and practitioner debates about the impact of property titling in t he making of settlement; 4) to create a sustainable international network of scholars and practitioners dedicated to providing through better physical and social interventions appropriate and durable strategies for both rebuilding settlement and resettlem ent in post-conflict situations. Our research will be based on three cases one each from Kenya, South Africa and Bosnia; each case will examine the affects of various forms of property and their affects on the social relationships, community morphology, s ustainability, community involvement, and issues that relate to potential conflict. The three cases were chosen to examine different aspects of property relations and their impact on sustainable settlement in both conflict and post-conflict situations at a number of settlement scales and at different moments of settlement rebuilding.From this research we hope to generate lessons learned with which to guide future action.